Organizational learning processes in international strategic alliances

Organizational learning processes in international strategic alliances

4.11 - 1251 ratings - Source



Inhaltsangabe:Abstract: In recent years, we have witnessed a surge of alliances among major corporations throughout the whole world; hardly a day goes by without announcements in the business press of new linkages, partnerships, or alliances. They increasingly involve partners from different parts of the world, are cross-cultural, and don It seem to have a limit. My curiosity for this phenomenon was captured by the course Collaborative Strategies in International Business , which I frequented at the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark in 1995. One of the articles, that made up the course literature was Gary Hamel Is Competition for Competence and Interpartner Learning within International Strategic Alliance (1991). In this influential paper he investigated which role International Strategic Alliances might play in effecting a partial redistribution of skills amongst partners. Furthermore, he found several determinants that influenced the success of interpartner learning. This study was the point of departure for my work. I just wanted to dig deeper into this topic and find answers to the following questions: What are the motives behind the increasing number of alliance formation? What role does the increasingly popular Resource-Based View of the firm play? How do Organizational Learning processes take shape? Which factors influence the success of learning processes in Strategic Alliances? What are then the managerial implications for the management of collaborative ventures? In the following chapters I try to find some answers to these questions. To this aim my paper will be organized in the following way: In Chapter 2 I will try to explain what a Strategic Alliance is and put forward some definitions. We will see, that this term comprises quite a lot of different forms of interfirm cooperation, from the classical form of Joint Venture to Joint Product Development arrangements. Furthermore, I will discuss some special features of the modern forms of collaboration: They are increasingly formed between direct rivals and also across national boundaries. Chapter 3 will give an overview of the drivers, that are responsible for the steadily increasing number of alliances. Globalization will be subdivided into four aspects, that have considerable influence on firms and their manager s ways of thinking and acting. The main point of this chapter will be that Strategic Alliances are one way of coping with the challenges that are posed by the ongoing globalization process. The impact of the above discussed globalization process on corporate strategy is the theme of Chapter 4. I will show that due to these effects a change from the Positioning Approach, as represented by Porter Is Five Forces, Value Chain and Generic Strategies, to the Resource-Based Approach resulted. Why is this of any importance to Organizational Learning and Strategic Alliances?, might be the question of the reader. Well, this change provides us also with some valuable insights why alliances have become such a popular instrument in today s business world. Competing on Competences is the new rule of the game and alliances are one way of doing so. Therefore, in Chapter 5 I elaborate further on the management of core Competences and will explain, that these tasks are also of considerable importance in the management of Strategic Alliances. In Chapter 6 I turn to Organizational Learning, which is a very important building block of Competences. Besides this relationship, I will discuss the most important ideas surrounding the concept of Organizational Learning and put forward some proposals, how a learning organization can be build. In the course of Chapter 7 I will present a systematic approach towards investing in Core Competences. This has to be done continuously, so that a more sustainable competitive advantage is ensured and it is protected against imitation and erosion, dangers that are especially present in a world, that is characterized by a situation of globalized knowledge. The basic conclusion of the first part of this chapter will be, that Strategic Alliances are one tool of acquiring new knowledge, which is essential for upgrading and building Competences. Then I will apply the concept of Organizational Learning presented in Chapter 7 to Strategic Alliances. This application will be continued in Chapter 8, where influencing factors on learning in collaborations are put forward. These comprise: Motivation, Transparency, Culture and Absorptive Capacity. Resulting from this discussion some managerial implications for the management of Strategic Alliances are deduced in Chapter 9. They should help to negotiate and lead alliances in such a way, that the best possible learning outcomes can be reached and the intent underlying this instrument, namely learning from the partner and enhancing Competences, can be reached. At the same time, managers should also be especially aware of the risks, that are implied. The paper is concluded by taking an outlook into the future in Chapter 10 and showing how ideas that were presented throughout the paper could be helpful in managing the firm of the future. Table of Contents: 1.INTRODUCTION5 2.WHAT IS A STRATEGIC ALLIANCE?7 2.1Definitions7 2.2Special Features of the New Alliances 9 3.STRATEGIC LOGIC OF ALLIANCES12 3.1Globalization13 3.1.1Globalization of Demand13 3.1.2Globalization of Supply14 3.1.3Globalization of Competition15 3.1.4Globalization of Knowledge16 3.2The Impact of Globalization on Firms18 3.2.1The Time-Element18 3.2.2The Dispersion of Technology19 3.2.3Cost Pressure19 3.2.4Need for Continuous Learning20 3.3The Role of Strategic Alliances21 4.THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL COMPETITION ON CORPORATE STRATEGY24 4.1Porter Is Framework25 4.1.1The Five-Forces-Framework25 4.1.2The Value Chain27 4.1.3Generic Strategies29 4.1.4Criticism30 4.2The Resource-Based View (RBV) of the Firm32 4.2.1The More Useful Approach33 4.2.2The Concept of Core Competence34 4.2.2Examples of Core Competences38 5.THE MANAGEMENT OF CORE COMPETENCES41 5.1Identifying Core Competences43 5.2Exploiting Core Competences46 5.3Protecting Core Competences47 5.4Developing Core Competences48 6.ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING50 6.1Definition of Organizational Learning51 6.2Levels of Learning52 6.3Single Loop and Double Loop Learning54 6.4Organizational Learning and Core Competences55 6.5Learning Processes56 6.5.1Knowledge Acquisition57 6.5.2Information Distribution59 6.5.3Interpretation of Information59 6.5.4Organizational Memory60 6.6Barriers to Effective Organizational Learning61 6.7Managerial Implications: Building a Learning Organization63 6.7.1Learning Vision63 6.7.2Learning Culture64 6.7.3Learning Structure66 6.7.4Learning to Learn67 7.INVESTING IN CORE COMPETENCES AND THE ROLE OF ALLIANCES69 7.1A Systematic Approach towards Investing in Core Competences69 7.1.1Vision / Industry Foresight70 7.1.2The Strategic Architecture74 7.1.3Insourcing and Outsourcing75 7.1.4Four Methods of Knowledge Acquisition76 7.1.5Development of New Core Competences at NEC81 7.2Organizational Learning Applied to Strategic Alliances82 7.2.1Becoming Aware and Identifying New Knowledge82 7.2.2Interacting and Transferring Knowledge85 7.2.3Using Knowledge87 7.2.4Institutionalizing Knowledge88 7.3Learning Outcomes in Strategic Alliances89 8.FACTORS INFLUENCING LEARNING IN STRATEGIC ALLIANCES93 8.1Motivation94 8.1.1Intent94 8.1.2Strategic Centrality96 8.2Transparency97 8.2.1Openness97 8.2.2Trust99 8.3Culture100 8.3.1Cultural Diversity101 8.3.2Organizational Culture104 8.4Absorptive Capacity104 8.4.1The Right Attitude104 8.4.2Effective Management105 9.MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS107 9.1Clear, strategic understanding of the need of collaboration107 9.2Partner selection110 9.2.1Complementary Skills110 9.2.2Strategic Intent of the Partner111 9.2.3Compatibility of Organizational Cultures112 9.3Becoming Aware of the Risks of Strategic Alliances114 9.3.1Opportunism114 9.3.2Knowledge Leaks114 9.3.3Dependency116 9.4Structure118 9.5Build Trust and Openness121 9.6Overcome Internal Resistance122 9.7Emphasize Organizational Learning124 10.OUTLOOK: THE FIRM OF THE FUTURE125 11.BIBLIOGRAPHY128... Equipment General Electric - Hitachi (TVs) General Electric - Fanuc ( Controllers) General Electric - Samsung (Microwave) General Motors ... For example, Philips uses for its compact disc players miniature lasers and controls developed and produced entirely by ... For example, General Electric got very dependent on Samsung to develop and produce even smaller, more lightweight microwave ovens.


Title:Organizational learning processes in international strategic alliances
Author: Thomas Weitlaner
Publisher:diplom.de - 2001-08-02
ISBN-13:

You must register with us as either a Registered User before you can Download this Book. You'll be greeted by a simple sign-up page.

Once you have finished the sign-up process, you will be redirected to your download Book page.

How it works:
  • 1. Register a free 1 month Trial Account.
  • 2. Download as many books as you like (Personal use)
  • 3. Cancel the membership at any time if not satisfied.


Click button below to register and download Ebook
Privacy Policy | Contact | DMCA